Since the 1960s, when two thirds of the
population could not read and write, illiteracy has
decreased dramatically. Now virtually all younger
Jordanians are literate. There are still problems,
especially in rural areas, such as a lack of competent
teachers and overcrowded classrooms. Many students are
The UN organization Unesco noted in 2018 that almost
100 percent of Jordanians over the age of 15 could read
and write, as high a proportion of girls as boys. Traces
of another era could be seen in the age group over 65,
with illiteracy amounting to 10 percent.
Allcitypopulation: Offers a list of biggest cities in the state of
Jordan, including the capital city which hosts major colleges and
Country facts of Jordan, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
The 10-year compulsory school is compulsory. Students
start school at the age of six. All children are offered
a place in the public school, which is free of charge,
but many children also attend private schools. The UN
agency for the Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, organizes
schooling in the Palestinian refugee camps. Jordan has
also received support from the UN Children's Fund Unicef
so that the many refugee children from Iraq and Syria
can attend school.
After compulsory school, most pupils continue to a
voluntary two-year post-secondary education,
corresponding to the upper secondary school, also free
of charge in the public schools for Jordanian citizens.
There they can choose between preparatory studies for
further vocational education or for university studies.
About a quarter of students study at one of the
private universities, according to an EU report 2017.
The teachers' union has to a large extent had to rely
on extra necks because wages are low. Low wages in an
Arab society can result in the postponement of marriage,
as income is not enough to support a family. In 2019,
87,000 teachers went on strike with demands for a 50
percent pay raise. When the strike ended after a month,
they had been promised a 35 percent increase. 1.5
million students in 4,000 state schools became
teacherless during the strike.
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
92.4 percent (2004)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
97.9 percent (2012)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
11.7 percent (2017)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
11.7 percent (2017)
Deadly attack on police officers
Ten people lose their lives when armed men attack a police station in the
city of Karak in southern Jordan. Seven police officers and three passers-by
were shot dead. In Karak there is a well-known castle from the Crusader era and
one of those killed is a female tourist from Canada. From Karak also came the
Jordanian pilot who participated in the raids against IS but crashed, captured
and burned alive in January 2015. Some of the assailants forge themselves in the
bail. Four of them are shot dead in a firefight
US soldiers killed
Three US soldiers are killed when gunfire erupts at a military base in the
southern part of the country. According to the Jordanian Army, the Americans
were shot at when they failed to obey the gatekeeper's orders and stopped at the
entrance to the base. The Americans should have shot back. A Jordanian soldier
was also wounded.
Refugee aid green light
Jordan announces that the country will once again allow aid shipments to the
refugees who are stuck on the other side of the border with Syria. However, the
border will continue to be closed as a way to keep terrorists away from Jordan.
Around 70,000 refugees from Syria are estimated to live in difficult conditions
in the desert near the Jordan border.
Murdered for a satire
Christian author Nahed Hattar is shot to death while on his way to a trial
where he is charged with publishing an anti-Islamic joke on Facebook. The murder
causes his clan to conduct hostile demonstrations demanding the resignation of
the government. Hatter's relatives claim that the government knew there was a
threat to the author but did nothing to protect him. The perpetrator, a
49-year-old computer engineer employed by the Ministry of Education, is arrested
and sentenced to death in December.
King Abdullah commissioned Hani Mulki to form a new government. A few days
later, the new government is approved by Parliament. No changes have been made
to the most important ministerial posts.
IAF back in Parliament
The Islamist group receives 16 of the 130 seats, according to the Election
Commission. The majority of the other mandates go to loyal candidates.
Elections to Parliament
In connection with Election Day, schoolchildren are given two days off and
50,000 police officers are waiting at the polling stations to ensure that
everything is calm. As many as 49 parties are in the elections, which after 130
amendments to the electoral law (see March) applies. The IAF is
part of a "reform" coalition with other candidates, including women and
Christians who have their own quota (see Political system).
Car bombs require life
Seven soldiers are killed when a suicide bomber detonates his charge outside
a refugee camp near the border with Syria. The Islamic State takes on the deed
and Jordan responds by closing the entire border in the desert against Iraq and
Syria. Thus, it will be impossible for international aid organizations to reach
through Jordan with supplies for refugees at the border.
Selection date is announced
The authorities announce that parliamentary elections will be held on
September 20. Muslim Brotherhood Political Branch, Islamic Action Front (IAF),
which is the country's most important party, announces after some doubt that the
party will participate. The IAF boycotted the 2010 and 2013 elections.
Shot drama in refugee camps
An armed man shoots at a refugee camp six men working for the country's
Parliament is disbanded and the country gets a new government to prepare for
parliamentary elections by October. New head of government will be Hani Mulki,
who has held several ministerial posts and served as the country's ambassador to
Egypt. The Minister for Foreign Affairs, Home Affairs and Finance remains in
Imprisoned minister is released
The Muslim minister who was sentenced to prison in December 2015 for
"inciting hatred of the regime" gets his sentence cut short and released.
The king gains more power on the paper
Parliament, by a large majority, adopts an addition to the Constitution which
allows King Abdullah to appoint his successor, the head of the country's
judiciary and the chairman of the Constitutional Court on his own. In addition,
the king gets the last word on the establishment of posts in the army, the
intelligence service and the National Guard. The fundamental change does not
change much in the matter. In the past, although Parliament would approve these
appointments, it was very uncommon for Parliament to oppose the King's wishes.
More refugees at the border
The authorities announce that the number of Syrian refugees trapped along the
border has now tripled. Around 50,000 are reported to be in no man's land
waiting to enter Jordan (see also January 2016).
Brotherhood under pressure
Authorities close Muslim Brotherhood offices in several cities in the
country. The relationship between the Brotherhood and the authorities has become
increasingly rigid since the so-called Arab Spring 2011. The authorities now
regard the Brotherhood as an illegal organization, but its political branch of
the Islamic Action Front (IAF) can still operate.
New electoral law is adopted
the 13th of March
The king signs the law which means that the system of majority voting in
one-man constituencies introduced from the 1993 elections is abolished. The
number of seats in the parliament is reduced from 150 to 130, of which 115 are
proportionally elected in general elections and 15 are occupied by women
representing the different parts of the country..
"Rupture limit reached"
King Abdullah said in an interview with the British news service BBC that the
refugee reception is close to the border and that his country will not be able
to receive more Syrians unless Europe pushes for more money. According to the
king, a quarter of the state budget is spent on providing for the refugees and
the situation puts great pressure on the country's welfare institutions and the
school system. Competition in the labor market is also increasing. A few days
before the start of an international conference in London, the King is
announcing the purpose of raising more money to support Syrians both inside and
outside the country.
Worried at the border
The army announces that 12 people who tried to cross the border from Syria
were killed in a firefight. In connection with the battle, large quantities of
drugs should have been seized. Jordan is closely monitoring the border with
Syria for fear of Islamist extremists entering the country. The refugees who
want to enter the country are subject to strict scrutiny. Jordan lets in only a
handful a day, which has resulted in tens of thousands of refugees stranded
waiting at the border. At present, 16,000 Syrian refugees are estimated to be
Israeli fence against terror
Israel begins to build a three-mile-long fence along part of the border with
Jordan. The idea is that the fence will keep refugees and terrorists away.