The children in Croatia start school the year
they turn seven and have eight years of compulsory
schooling. Almost everyone attends elementary school.
Most go on to high school. The school suffers from lack
of resources and outdated curricula.
Preschool is from infancy, although most preschools
are for children from the age of three. Almost all
children go at least one school preparation year before
starting regular school.
The compulsory compulsory school is divided into two
four-year stages. In the first, the children have a
class teacher, and in the second several different
subject teachers. Almost everyone goes to state schools
but some private schools have been added since
independence in 1991.
Allcitypopulation: Offers a list of biggest cities in the state of
Croatia, including the capital city which hosts major colleges and
Country facts of Croatia, including geography profile, population statistics, and business data.
At the corresponding upper secondary level, there are
four-year college preparation programs, four-year
artist-oriented programs and vocational programs that
are up to four years long. In 2010, a degree was
introduced at the high school's end, which replaced an
earlier system of entrance exams to the university.
During the communist era (1945–1991) great resources
were invested in the school, but the students were not
taught to think independently and critically. The HDZ
regime in the 1990s instead went in to make the school
more nationalist Croatian, especially in subjects such
as history. This has changed later, but according to EU
estimates, the Croatian school is still suffering from
outdated curricula and inadequate teaching materials.
The premises are substandard and there is little money
in the school system.
There are seven state universities in Croatia. The
University of Zagreb was founded as early as 1669. In
recent years, several private universities and colleges
have been added. The proportion of residents with some
form of higher education is lower than in the rest of
the EU, but is increasing.
FACTS - EDUCATION
Proportion of children starting primary
87.5 percent (2016)
Number of pupils per teacher in primary
Reading and writing skills
99.1 percent (2011)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of GDP
9.5 percent (2013)
Public expenditure on education as a
percentage of the state budget
9.5 percent (2013)
Comprehensive bribe in healthcare
After a year's investigation of a comprehensive corruption case, 364 people
are being prosecuted for bribes from a pharmaceutical company to healthcare
workers. These are about 300 doctors, but also other healthcare employees,
pharmacists and employees at the company. The defendants risk several years in
prison. Some doctors have received conditional judgment and a fine for sparing
the medical profession from losing too many doctors.
Requirements for limiting rights for minorities
War veterans and other right-wing actors have had over 650,000 people sign an
appeal for a referendum on diminishing rights for minorities. The Committee
behind the call wants official use of Serbian and Cyrillic writing to be limited
to municipalities with at least half Serbs instead of one-third as now (see
November 2013). The government condemns the initiative with the
referendum, and Foreign Minister Vesna Pusić declares that EU membership obliges
Croatia to comply with existing legislation on minority rights. In August 2014,
the Constitutional Court bans such a referendum and says it is not "reasonably
fair". However, the Court finds that Parliament has the right to increase the
No to same-sex marriage
In a referendum, 66 percent support a requirement that a ban on same-sex
marriage be included in the Constitution. The referendum is then held by an
alliance of conservative groups with the support of the Catholic Church
collecting some 750,000 signatures.
War veterans want to vote on Cyrillic signs
On the 22nd anniversary of Vukovar's fall, Croatian war veterans launch a
campaign for the referendum on official use of Cyrillic writing. The war
veterans have repeatedly demonstrated in the autumn and protested, among other
things, by tearing down bilingual street signs (see February 2013). They now
want to collect signatures for the referendum with the suggestion that Cyrillic
writing may be used only in places where Serbs are in the majority, instead of
one-third according to current law. In Vukovar, about a third of the population
A new party is formed
Former Environment Minister Mirela Holy forms a new party, Sustainable
Development of Croatia (Orah). Holy has left the Social Democrats after a
conflict with the party leadership.
The government reverses the extradition law
Following threats of punitive action by the European Commission, the
government agrees to amend a new extradition law. According to the law passed in
late June, Croatia would not extradite people for crimes committed before 2002,
a way to bypass an EU rule from that year. According to critics, the purpose of
the law was to protect a communist-era spy chief who was suspected of murdering
a German dissident in 1983. Following the threats of EU sanctions, Parliament is
now voting to amend the law. In 2014, two former spy bosses, Josip Perković and
Zdravko Mustać, are extradited to Germany where they are later sentenced to life
imprisonment for the murder.
The last state bank is sold
The government decides to privatize the last state bank Hrvatska Postanska
Bank and the country's largest insurance company Croatia Osiguranje. The
intention is to reduce the central government debt and the budget deficit.
Croatia becomes an EU member
The official entry into the Union is celebrated with fireworks and President
Josipović describes it as a historic moment. Among the population at large, the
enthusiasm for EU membership has cooled since negotiations began several years
ago. The country's economy is in deep crisis and it is hoped that a Union that
itself has major economic problems will be able to help Croatia.
Elections to the European Parliament
A special election to the European Parliament will be held in Croatia ahead
of the country's entry into the Union at the end of the next six months. The
election is won by the opposition party HDZ, which takes six of Croatia's twelve
seats in parliament. The turnout is only 21 percent.
Bank dispute with Slovenia resolved
Croatia and Slovenia sign an agreement for an old banking dispute from the
1990s to be resolved by international mediators. It was the last practical
obstacle to Croatia's entry into the EU at the turn of the year. The EU
Commission's final report states that Croatia fulfilled all EU membership
Demonstrations against Cyrillic street signs
Over 20,000 war veterans and other Croat nationalists demonstrate in Vukovar
against the authorities' plans to erect street signs with not only Latin but
also Cyrillic writing in the city. By law, ethnic minorities should be able to
use their languages in areas where they make up at least a third of the
population, and according to recently published census results, Serbs do so in
Vukovar and some 20 other municipalities. The protesters, however, demand that
an exception be made for 50 years for Vukovar, because Serbian attackers
destroyed the city and displaced and killed Croats in the war in 1991. A similar
demonstration in Zagreb in April gathers around 25,000 people.